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God’s Choice or the god of Choice

Posted on Mar 10, 2016 by in Articles, Theology | 0 comments

connectnature2

By: Syed Ali Jafri1

Introduction

The foundation of Islam is tawhid, the concept of God’s oneness or unity. The centrality of tawhid is encapsulated in the Qur’anic verse, “Say He is Allah, the one”2 and the prophetic tradition “Say, there is no god except God, that you may succeed.”3 All of God’s messengers, from Adam and Abraham to Moses and Jesus, to Muhammad (peace and blessings upon them all), based their ethical, spiritual and social teachings on tawhid.4

The brilliant commentator of the Holy Qur’an, Allamah Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Tabataba’i states, “Tawhid, when expanded, becomes the whole of Islam…”5 Thus, only with an accurate tawhidi worldview can Muslims maintain an undistorted and holistic Islam. Conversely, any misunderstandings vis-à-vis tawhid results in a distorted Islam, with certain features embellished and others minimized. Such caricatures are manifested in the modern world via extremist Muslims, be they violent extremists or liberal extremists. These seemingly antagonistic trends in reality conform to the same ideological tree. “And the parable of a bad word is that of a bad tree; uprooted from the ground, it has no stability.”6 In so far as these perverted ideologies lack the spiritual roots to connect themselves to reality, they have misconstrued Islam by way of a distorted tawhid.

One misrepresentation of tawhid is its propagation as a dogmatic theological concept with no practical implications. Ayatullah Sayyid Ali Khamenei (h) calls this distortion “the greatest tragedy of our times” because no other concept has such “power and potential for liberation and emancipation of oppressed human beings.”7 As tawhid encapsulates all of Islam, in its holistic understanding lies revolutionary solutions to not only our intellectual and philosophical problems, but all social, economic and political doctrines. Notably, an equally distorted tawhid is its propagation as a purely practical or political ideology with no real theoretical and spiritual foundation.

In hopes of inching closer to a holistic tawhidi worldview, we shall first examine the concept of God’s Lordship and its implications. Secondly, we will identify the theoretical extensions of his Lordship with regard to leadership. Finally, we shall determine how our theological foundations should direct our thoughts and actions to prepare for a divine system.8

Part 1: Lordship: The Source of Authority

It can be stated that no single aspect of tawhid is as misunderstood practically as Tawhid al-Rububiyyah, the Unity of Lordship. The Opening of the Holy Qur’an states, “All praise belongs to Allah, Lord of all the worlds.”9 This Rububiyyah, or Lordship of God, is an aspect of tawhid which is greatly emphasized in the Holy Qur’an: “To Allah belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth.”10 Accordingly, all human beings are servants of God, and He is their true owner and Lord. God’s complete ownership means humans are entirely dependent upon God in both original creation and their moment to moment existence (Rububiyyah al-Tawkini/Existential Lordship), and that as their sole owner and Lord, God can intervene and manage human affairs any way He sees fit (Rububiyyah al-Tashri’i/Legislative Lordship).11

By acknowledging that man is the servant of God, and God alone, man “liberates [himself] from the bondage and servility to any object, individual, or system which takes the central place of God…”12 Thus, tawhid provides equal worth to every human being because it implies their absolute equality in essence. This essential equality creates the potential for unity and harmony between all people by creating absolute liberation from all purely human ideologies, governments and power structures. And it is for this reason one theoretically frees himself from false gods with the words, “There is no deity but Allah, and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.”13

It then follows that fundamental differences between Islamic political theory and ideologies such as monarchy, socialism or democracy are crystalized when tawhid and its implications are better understood. Notably, legislative power in Islam, the right to enact and establish laws, lies solely with God (as per Rububiyyah al-Tashri’i/Legislative Lordship). If we truly understand that “To Allah belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth,”14 it logically follows that only the true owner has the right to rule over His subjects.

We adhere to this understanding of ownership daily. For example, if we invite a guest to our home and he begins making plans to sell our car, we would question him. If he responded that his mother gave him the authority to sell our car, our response is obvious. He has no authority to make decisions about our property and his mother is not the true owner to delegate authority to him.15

The same principle holds true when attributed to the Almighty God. Therefore, only God, or a person who has been delegated authority by God, has the right to establish laws or govern God’s subjects on God’s earth because “To Allah belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth.”16 A divinely aligned system is one in which God, via divine law and his selected representatives, rules over men.17

Thus, “Whosoever obeys the Messenger, thereby obeys God…”18 and in such a system, individual opinions “…even if it be that of the Prophet himself…” cannot intervene.19 That is, the legislative authority of the prophets was legitimate only because that authority was delegated to them by its true owner, and not because they had any inherent authority in and of themselves. The Holy Qur’an clarifies this principle when it states about the Holy Prophet (s), “Had he faked any sayings in Our name, We would have surely seized him by the right hand and then cut off his aorta…”20 Accordingly, it is clear that only God has the right to rule over his property and subjects.21

Part 2: Elitism: Who put you in charge?

“The principle of tawhid negates [the] right of sovereignty and guardianship of anyone over human society except God.”22As discussed above, we cannot act according to our own whims in relation to the property and rights of others, nor can we grant to others what we ourselves do not possess. For example, if one does not possess knowledge, he cannot pass it on to others. Likewise, if one does not possess authority, he cannot delegate authority to others. Logic requires that only the possessor of a thing can entrust it to another.23

This principle is expounded upon in the traditions of the Holy Prophet (s) and his successors. Shaykh as-Saduq narrates that the Abbassid Caliph Ma’mun al-Rasheed told Imam al-Rida (a)24 that Ma’mun planned to dismiss himself from the position of Caliphate and assign it to Imam al-Rida (a). The Imam (a) replied, “If the Caliphate is yours, then God has established it for you and it is not proper for you to relieve yourself of it and place someone else in that position. But if it is not yours, you are not authorized to give what is not yours to me.”25

In these words lies a decisive argument against any system disconnected from God’s designated representative. For just as an individual has no right to rule in God’s domain, “the aggregate of people and society do not inherently have such a right [either].”26 If my right to rule is equal to zero, and your right to rule is equal to zero and all other people in society’s rights to rule is equal to zero, the aggregate of our rights to rule cannot equal one. We cannot assign to another a right which we do not possess. The right to rule belongs to God alone, and only the one to whom God has delegated authority is a legitimate ruler or has the right to delegate such rule. All other authorities are usurping the right of God’s designee(s).

In today’s world there are those who have faith in God, but have overlooked the practical and social implications of their belief. It is therefore important to pause and acknowledge that what is being said here may be difficult to digest. God has warned us that “If you obey most of those on earth, they will lead you astray from the way of God…”27 And today we find that any critique of liberal democracy is met with fierce opposition and confounded looks, as if one has questioned God himself. This is to be expected, given that this concept is arguably the greatest idol worshipped on earth today, albeit at times unknowingly. Thus, at this juncture the reader may feel uneasy, defensive, and even compelled to “rationalize, ignore and even deny anything that doesn’t fit in with this core belief.”28

However, with a bit of contemplation and introspection, it is apparent that the democratic ideal of a “government of the people, by the people, and for the people” practically does not exist, nor can it ever.29 As the French philosopher René Guénon said, “If the word democracy is defined as the government of the people by themselves, it expresses an absolute impossibility…it is contradictory to say that the same persons can be at the same time rulers and ruled…”30 That is, while the rulers can potentially rise from the ruled class, when they rule, they are no longer a part of that ruled class.

Thus, practically the people are always being ruled by a group of elites, selected or elected based on some criteria or another. And despite the impossibility of self-rule31 “the great ability of those who are in control in the modern world lies in making the people believe that they are governing themselves.”32 Thus, governing society is practically managed by an elite or group of elites. This begs the question: What criteria do we use to select the elites?

We have established the criteria offered by a divine worldview, namely, only those who have been delegated authority by God have any legitimate right to rule. All other options are at some level in opposition to the divine worldview, including a society which wishes to be ruled “by the people.” And since this is practically impossible, what we instead find in today’s world are elites selected “based on a variety of totally relative and contingent points of superiority, always of a purely material order.”33 That is, when a society rejects the rule of God via his designee (who God has selected based on piety, honesty, knowledge34 and God-consciousness), that same society will ultimately select one or a group of “false elites” based on “pagan criteria such as wealth and power.”35 A cursory look at the 2016 American presidential candidates establishes this truth conclusively, as the candidates, like those before them, are considered viable options because of characteristics such as wealth, fame, oratory skills or being “less evil.”

This returns us to a more fundamental question vis-à-vis why people of faith should care about the question of authority. Does the nature of government play a role in the development of individuals and societies? Does it make a difference if Jesus (a) rules or if Pontius Pilate rules? If Hussain (a) rules or Yazid rules? Is the issue of government part and parcel of the prophetic tradition, or are religion and politics two separate entities, like parallel lines which never meet?36 It is a sign of this age of confusion that despite annual commemorations of events whose foundation signifies our acceptance of divine leadership (i.e., Christmas, Be’thatGhadeer), practically these reminders do not arouse our consciousness and our “(Tawhidi) belief [does] not awaken…any feeling of disharmony with the non-Tawhidi status quo…”37

None of what has been said should be understood to mean that Islam is opposed to self-determination or democratic notions. On the contrary, God’s system “is not domineering and does not impose thoughts on people.”38 God’s designated representatives never forced their authority on anyone because in a divine system, “the methods of obtaining power and maintaining it must be ethical methods.”39 Those of God’s designees who successfully established governments did not in essence establish those governments by force, rather it was the people who willingly and freely accepted the God-ordained governments.40 Unfortunately, today we find those who promote caricatures of Islam attempt to force their views on others via violence or other coercive means, in opposition to the prophetic tradition. Conversely, we see those closest to the tradition of God and his Messenger (s) proclaim, “The choice is with the people.”41

Therefore, although the people have no role in the legitimacy of the government of God’s representative, they play a fundamental role in the establishment of such a government. For example, Prophet Muhammad (s) was God’s representative and the legitimate ruler of his time. He did not need the people’s vote or approval to demonstrate his God-given legitimacy.42 However, the people played a fundamental role in accepting and establishing his government, or failing to do so. Thus, in a divinely aligned system, the desires, feelings and even votes of the people have a fundamental influence with regard to the establishment, not the legitimacy, of the government.43 It is necessary for the people to “determine their own societal fate”44 even if that decision is wrong.45

It must be noted that it is an error to view the role of a divine system to simply establish a just social order. A divine system is concerned not only with “correcting the material conditions of the people, but [with] character development.”46And the paths and mysteries to character and spiritual development are the unique purview of God’s representatives, who have themselves perfected their moral character. Thus, just as a modern democracy includes checks and balances to theoretically ensure it adheres to its primary goals, a divine system must function under the guidance and authority of God’s morally perfect designee. And this is only right, since God’s designee is the only one endowed with legitimacy to rule from the true owner.47

Part 3: Clearing the Fog

From both rational and canonical perspectives, leadership in a divinely aligned society lies with God’s appointed designee. Thus, the rule of God’s designated authorities on earth today, namely, Jesus (a) and al-Mahdi (a.f.), is eagerly awaited in both Christianity and Islam. Until then, who do we turn to and what role do we play? Both logic and textual sources require that we turn to the most capable, knowledgeable and just scholar, as these characteristics were outlined by the legitimate designees of God during our age, Prophet Muhammad (s) and his successors (a).48

This idea of a philosopher king, as expressed by Plato, or wali-e-faqi, as expressed conceptually by generations of jurists and practically manifested by Imam al-Khomeini (r), is beyond the purview of this piece, but elicits “immediate assent…for anyone who has some general awareness of the beliefs and ordinances of Islam” and is “necessary and self-evident”49 for some of the reasons outlined in Parts 1 and 2 above.

Further, if we are concerned with following divine authority to improve our social condition and reach personal perfection, we must better understand our roles and duties. For the Holy Qur’an states, “God does not change a people’s condition, until they change what is in their souls.”50 Today for many believers and unbelievers alike, the need to connect one’s self and one’s society to God’s divine authority appears unnecessary. This despite the nearly universal agreement that there is something terribly wrong with the status quo. We know that power structures, be they ideologies, religions, governments, political parties or industries, control and subjugate the masses but we do not effectively oppose those structures or identify meaningful strategies towards true freedom.

This thick fog of confusion, whereby a holistic connection to our Creator appears irrelevant, exists in part because of the active opposition to a divine worldview by the false elites, who have placed the idol of democracy, and by extension, the idol of the self, on the alters of our collective consciousness. While the false elites will not hesitate to support the most brutal dictators and use the most draconian means to maintain power and oppose democracy’s “wrong results” abroad, they understand their authority is easier to maintain at home when it is willingly given to them by the masses through a seemingly democratic apparatus.

Thus, they expend their time and energies promoting and maintaining the façade of self-determination. And in those societies operated by the false elites who are most opposed to tawhid, the propagation of the false idol is most intense. However, even in such societies, if the active opposition of the false elites to a divine worldview were to disappear, “the general mentality [of the masses] would come very near to changing direction”51 because the tawhidi worldview is not only supported logically, but mankind is naturally and spiritually inclined towards it.52

So how do we remove this fog of confusion and advance our society toward a divine worldview? To start, we must remove the confusion from our own minds and understand the primary source of the disoriented status quo. We must recognize that often when a position is given to a person unqualified for it, the results are chaotic. If one with no knowledge of medicine is asked to perform heart surgery, what result would we expect? Similarly, all around the globe the false elites have made a mess of this world because they lack the qualifications to lead, namely, God’s divine mandate, which is given only to those with piety, divine knowledge, and a commitment to justice.

Only when we understand that the remedy to mankind’s ailments is a return to God’s unity and the divine system we were created for can we begin to tread a path toward a comprehensive and sustainable solution, namely, God’s divine help via Jesus (a) and al-Mahdi (a.f.). Until then, we will never effect change in a meaningful or sustainable manner because we will remain on the “profane ground on which the modern mentality enjoys an obvious advantage…”53 That is, a problem of this magnitude will never be solved until we identify its root. We must clearly understand that an illegitimate political order driven by false elites, a system which is currently used to remove God and his divine prophets from the equation, can never be the foundation upon which a just and Godly society is built, just as “a chicken can’t produce a duck egg.”54

It is unfortunate that today we observe people of faith preaching the merits of the system of the false elites. They hold that with time this system can create a just order via lobbies and votes. This misidentification of secondary tools (which have utility only under the appropriate circumstances) for primary ones serves to confine the masses within the false elites’ favorite game, electoral politics. Such confused rhetoric by people of faith furthers an important goal of the false elites, namely, stifling popular movements with revolutionary potential and promoting the idol of choice. This shortsightedness is rooted in a limited understanding of tawhid and/or a limited understanding of the system of the false elites. To quote the revolutionary Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., such confusion also “stems from a tragic misconception of time…human progress never rolls in on wheels of inevitability; it comes through the tireless efforts of men willing to be co-workers with God.”55

And so co-workers with God we must be, for our conscience allows us no alternative. First by removing the fog in our minds and correctly and clearly identifying where the problem lies. And secondly by creating solutions via the revolutionary path of tawhid. And since our goals are the same as the goals of the prophets, our movement, and the leaders of our movement, must share the goals, strategies and characteristics of the prophets.

Finally, let us take a moment to reflect on the truly revolutionary nature of a holistic tawhid. It has been said that a “true revolution can never be disguised”56 and this is true of any tawhidi revolution. For whenever the call of tawhid reached a people, it could not be ignored. It was eventually faced with “conflicting responses [from] two opposite poles of society: opposition and antagonism on the part of the mustakbirun (the arrogant oppressors), and support and acceptance on the part of the mustad`afun (the oppressed).”57 The existence of such reactions towards us by these two groups in society should serve as a litmus test to gauge if we are treading on a divine path or if we remain in a fog of satanic confusion.

Conclusion

A revolution is coming in which the intellects and moral character of mankind will be perfected.58 In the end, mankind will return to the metaphysical and ethical ethos of the prophets, which is God’s promise: “And We desired to show favor to those who were abased in the land, and to make them imams, and to make them the heirs.”59 The only question is whether or not we, as individuals and a community, will be on the right side of history.

Some might ask: “What should we do?” We respond by posing a more appropriate question: “What should we think?” For only by being people of intellection before being people of action can we return to the prophetic tradition and build a society in which all people can thrive and reach their human potential. Thus, our duty is to learn true doctrines and act on them, so we can free ourselves from the false elites and the false idols and ideologies which form a barrier between us and the total acceptance of the Lordship of our Creator. And we must do so together, for division is the primary weapon of our enemy. Hand in hand and soul by soul, if we perform our duty we can hope to create a better world in the tradition of Jesus (a), Moses (a) and Muhammad (s). More importantly, by traversing this path we hope to inch closer to the purpose of our very creation, Unity with God.

And with this hope we forge ahead with the knowledge that if we perform our duty, no matter the odds, then we are supported by the same One God who gave victory to Moses over Pharaoh, David over Goliath, to Muhammad (s) in Badr and to al-Hussain (a) on the burning sands of Karbala. For “God has ordained, ‘I shall surely prevail, I and My apostles.’ Indeed God is all-strong, all-mighty.”60

 Source: Letter For Truth


 

1The author would like to express his gratitude to Hujjatul-Islam Shaykh Shuja Ali Mirza for his guidance.

2The Holy Qur’an 102:1 قُل هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ

3Hadith attributed to the Holy Prophet (s), Bihar al-Anwar v. 18, p. 202 قُولُوا لا اِلهَ اِلا الله تُفْلِحُوا

4For example, it is narrated that Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib (a) answered a question about tawhid during the Battle of the Camel. Tawhid or Monotheism, by Ayatullah Muhammad Taqi Misbah Yazdi, available at http://www.al-islam.org/tawhid-or-monotheism-muhammad-taqi-misbah-yazdi

5Ibid

6The Holy Qur’an 14:26 وَمَثَلُ كَلِمَةٍ خَبيثَةٍ كَشَجَرَةٍ خَبيثَةٍ اجتُثَّت مِن فَوقِ الأَرضِ ما لَها مِن قَرارٍ

7Tawhid and its Social Implications, by Ayatullah Sayyid Ali Khamenei, available at

http://www.al-islam.org/al-tawhid/vol1-n3/al-tawhid-and-its-social-implications-ayatullah-sayyid-ali-khamenei

8According to Muslim tradition, during the last days, Imam al-Mahdi (a.f.), a descendent of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (s), with the help of Jesus (a), will establish justice on earth.

9The Holy Qur’an 1:2 الحَمدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ العالَمينَ

10The Holy Qur’an 3: 109 وَلِلَّهِ ما فِي السَّماواتِ وَما فِي الأَرضِ

11Theological Instructions, by Ayatullah Muhammad Taqi Misbah Yazdi, p. 50, available at

http://www.islamic-laws.com/pdf/Theological-Instructions-Yazdi.pdf

12Khamenei, Tawhid and its Social Implications

13لا إِلٰهَ إِلَّا الله مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ الله

14The Holy Qur’an 3: 109 وَلِلَّهِ ما فِي السَّماواتِ وَما فِي الأَرضِ

15This is an example of what society considers true ownership, although it may not conform to true ownership in reality.

16The Holy Qur’an 3: 109 وَلِلَّهِ ما فِي السَّماواتِ وَما فِي الأَرضِ

17Islamic Government, Governance of the Jurist, Imam Sayyid Ruhallah Musawi al-Khomeini, available at http://www.al-islam.org/islamic-government-governance-of-jurist-imam-khomeini

18The Holy Qur’an 4:80 مَن يُطِعِ الرَّسولَ فَقَد أَطاعَ اللَّهَ

19Misbah Yazdi, Tawhid or Monotheism

20The Holy Qur’an 69:44-6 وَلَو تَقَوَّلَ عَلَينا بَعضَ الأَقاويلِ

21The Holy Qur’an 19:90-1; similarly, Islam finds it that abhorrent that any human to be given “god-like” status. For further discussion please see طرح کلی اندیشه اسلامی در قرآن, by Sayyid Ali Khamenei, p. 198-199

22Khamenei, Tawhid and its Social Implications

23Encapsulated in the philosophical principle of فاقد الشيء لا يعطيه

24Imam Ali ibn Musa al-Rida (a) was the eighth successor of the Prophet Muhammad (s). He was well known for his knowledge, worship and lofty ethical traits. He was forced to accept the position of crown prince by the Abbasid Caliph Ma’mun al-Rasheed and thereafter martyred for his failure to support al-Ma’mun’s government.

25Auyun Akhbar al-Redha, Sheikh Saduq, Vol. 2, Chapter 40, Hadith #3.
فَقَالَ لَهُ الْمَأْمُونُ فَإِنِّي قَدْ رَأَيْتُ أَنْ أَعْزِلَ نَفْسِي عَنِ الْخِلَافَةِ وَ أَجْعَلَهَا لَكَ وَ أُبَايِعَكَ فَقَالَ لَهُ الرِّضَا ع إِنْ كَانَتْ هَذِهِ الْخِلَافَةُ لَكَ وَ اللَّهُ جَعَلَهَا لَكَ فَلَا يَجُوزُ لَكَ أَنْ تَخْلَعَ لِبَاساً أَلْبَسَكَ اللَّهُ وَ تَجْعَلَهُ لِغَيْرِكَ وَ إِنْ كَانَتِ الْخِلَافَةُ لَيْسَتْ لَكَ فَلَا يَجُوزُ لَكَ أَنْ تَجْعَلَ لِي مَا لَيْسَ لَك‏

26Misbah Yazdi, Tawhid or Monotheism

27The Holy Qur’an 6: 116 وَإِن تُطِع أَكثَرَ مَن فِي الأَرضِ يُضِلّوكَ عَن سَبيلِ اللَّهِ

28Quote attributed to Franz Fanon’s “Black Skin White Masks

29Quote attributed to President Abraham Lincoln, Gettysburg Address, November 19, 1863, available at http://www.abrahamlincolnonline.org/lincoln/speeches/gettysburg.htm. Notably, even Bernie Sanders, a candidate for the 2016 Democratic presidential nomination, acknowledges that this ideal practically may not exist: “In the year 2016, with a political campaign finance system that is corrupt and increasingly controlled by billionaires and special interests, I fear very much that, in fact, government of the people, by the people, and for the people is beginning to perish in the United States of America.” Available at https://berniesanders.com/issues/money-in-politics/

30Crisis of the Modern World, by Rene Genon, p. 74, available at

http://tohno-chan.com/ddl/src/Rene_Guenon_-_The_Crisis_of_the_Modern_World.pdf

31Ironically, history has recorded statements of the Founding Fathers’ of the United States explaining the need for a class of elites to manage the affairs of society. See James Madison, The Federalist No. 10; The Utility of the Union as a Safeguard against Domestic Insurrection, found at www.consitituion.org/fed/federa10.htm. Further, this notion is practically manifested today via concepts such as the Electoral College and “super-delegates.”

32Genon, p. 74

33Ibid, p. 78

34Imam ‘Ali (‘a) said: “O men! The most qualified among men for rule is he who is most capable and knowledgeable of God’s commands.” Nahj al-Balghah, Sermon 172

35Khamenei, Tawhid and its Social Implications

36Misbah Yazdi, Tawhid or Monotheism

37Khamenei, Tawhid and its Social Implications

38ﻣﺮﺩﻡ ﺳﺎﻻﺭی ﺩﻳﻨﯽ. ﺳﻴﺪ ﻋﻠﯽ ﻓﻴﺎﺽ, which includes this quotation attributed to Sayyid Khamenei

39Ibid

40i.e. David (a), Solomon (a), Muhammad (s), Ali (a); see Misbah Yazdi, Tawhid or Monotheism

41ﺍﻣﺎ ﺧﻤﻴﻨﯽ ﻭ ﺩﻣﻮﮐﺮﺍﺳﯽ. ﺑﻬﺮﺍﻥ ﮐﺎﻅﻤﯽ, quotation attributed to Imam al-Khomeini, who also stated “We didn’t see it necessary to hold the referendum (because the people’s view was clear) but in order to silence the statements and excuses we held the referendum and those people who had doubt understood the people are with Islam.”

42“…through bay‘ah one expresses exigency to obey the legitimate and rightful ruler, and not to give legitimacy.” Misbah Yazdi, Tawhid or Monotheism

43ﻣﺮﺩﻡ ﺳﺎﻻﺭی ﺩﻳﻨﯽ. ﺳﻴﺪ ﻋﻠﯽ ﻓﻴﺎﺽ, which includes this quotation attributed to Sayyid Khamenei

44ﻣﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ, by Ayatullah Abdullah Jawadi Amoli, p. 463

45Here it is appropriate to briefly point the reader to examine the Islamic perspective on predestination and free-will. All events are dependent on the will and divine decree of God. This truth does not contradict man’s free will, which is completely intact but completely dependent on God, as is the case with causes occupying vertical planes. For more detail please refer to Theological Instructions, by Ayatullah Misbah Yazdi, p. 76.

46ﺍﻣﺎ ﺧﻤﻴﻨﯽ ﻭ ﺩﻣﻮﮐﺮﺍﺳﯽ. ﺑﻬﺮﺍﻥ ﮐﺎﻅﻤﯽ, quotation attributed to Imam al-Khomeini

47The Holy Qur’an 33:36

48For a detailed discussion on the subject please refer to A Cursory Glance at the Theory of Wilayat al-Faqih by Ayatuallah Misbah Yazdi, or Islamic Government by Imam Khomeini, both available at al-islam.org

49Khomeini, Islamic Government, Introduction

50The Holy Qur’an, 13:11  إِنَّ اللَّهَ لا يُغَيِّرُ ما بِقَومٍ حَتّىٰ يُغَيِّروا ما بِأَنفُسِهِم

51Genon, p. 71

52The Holy Qur’an, 30:30 فَأَقِم وَجهَكَ لِلدّينِ حَنيفًا ۚ فِطرَتَ اللَّهِ الَّتي فَطَرَ النّاسَ عَلَيها

53Genon, p. 79

54Quote attributed to the American martyr Malcolm X, in a speech given in New York on March 29, 1964

55Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., Letter from a Birmingham Jail, available at https://www.africa.upenn.edu/Articles_Gen/Letter_Birmingham.html

56Quote attributed to Che Guevara. Che Guevara: A Revolutionary Life, by John Lee Anderson

57Khamenei, Tawhid and its Social Implications

58الشموس‏ المضيئة ‏
Narrated from Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (a):
قَالَ إِذَا قَامَ قَائِمُنَا وَضَعَ يَدَهُ عَلَى رُءُوسِ الْعِبَادِ فَجَمَعَ بِهِ عُقُولَهُمْ وَ أَكْمَلَ بِهِ أَخْلَاقَهُم

59The Holy Qur’an 28:5, وَنُريدُ أَن نَمُنَّ عَلَى الَّذينَ استُضعِفوا فِي الأَرضِ وَنَجعَلَهُم أَئِمَّةً وَنَجعَلَهُمُ الوارِثينَ

60The Holy Qur’an 58:21 كَتَبَ اللَّهُ لَأَغلِبَنَّ أَنا وَرُسُلي ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ قَوِيٌّ عَزيزٌ

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